Remember, remember, the Fifth of November…

Elizabeth Stuart by Gerrit van Honthorst. National Portrait Gallery, London.

I was doing some reading about the Gunpowder, Treason and Plot thingie when I came across this lady. I read that she was Elizabeth Stuart, daughter of James VI of Scotland and I of England and our very own Anne of Denmark and naturally my interest was spiked.

Elizabeth was born on the 19th of August 1596, the second child of James and Anne at Falkland Palace in Fife, Scotland and was six years old when her father took the English throne.

Elizabeth in 1606, by Robert Peake the Elder. Metropolitan Museum of Art

She comes into the Gunpowder, Treason and Plot by being Guy Fawkes’ intended Catholic monarch. It was his plan to kidnap her in 1605, when she was nine, and, after assassinating her father to put her on the throne. Happily, Guy Fawkes was apprehended before he could murder her father and Elizabeth remained a princess, not to follow in her aunt’s footsteps as a reigning queen of England.
Elizabeth was married on Valentine’s Day 1613 to Frederick V, the Elector of the Palatinate in Germany. They were married at the palace of Whitehall and John Donne, the famous 17th century poet, wrote a poem to celebrate the event “Epithalamion, or Marriage Song on the Lady Elizabeth, and Count Palatine being married on St. Valentines Day.”

Frederick led the coalition of Protestant princes at Holy Roman Emperor’s court and marrying Elizabeth would have tightened his ties to his fellow protestants at the court. Despite the business-like affair of their marriage, the two were believed to be genuinely in love with each other and Frederick even created an English wing in his palace at Heidelberg to make his wife comfortable.

Elizabeth is also sometimes called The Winter Queen, the cause being her husband’s short reign as king of Bohemia. Frederick was offered the Bohemian crown in 1619 and both him and Elizabeth were crowned in November 1619. However, Ferdinand II, the Holy Roman Emperor, had a birthright to the throne and did not let them reign long. He forced the couple into exile by 1920, where Elizabeth came to be known as the Winter Queen.

In 1648 her son, Charles I, won back the Electorate of the Palatinate and after the Restoration of the English and Scottish Monarchs, it was also possible for Elizabeth to travel to England to visit her nephew, Charles II.

It is also through Elizabeth’s line the Hanoverian royal house of Britain, which ended in 1901 with Queen Victoria, is descended. Her daughter, Sophia of Hanover, had become the nearest Protestant to the English and Irish crown and under the Act of Settlement (1701) the royal crown was bestowed on her and her issue.

And this particular blog owner, will never cease to be amazed at how interconnected the royal houses of Europe really are. I hope all of my readers in England are having a great Bonfire Night!

Elizabeth as a widow, by Gerard van Honthorst. National Gallery of London.

 

 

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The Crown Regalia: The Queen’s Crown

The smaller one is the queen's crown.

My first post on the crown regalia of Denmark focused on the two crowns utilised by Danish kings throughout the ages. Of them there are two. But there is only one female crown.

The queen’s crown dates back to 1731 and went through some pretty drastic re-modellings. When Frederick III had a crown ordered by his father, it is natural that Christian V should order one for his daughter-in-law, the wife of the absolute monarch, as well. We simply do not know what it looks like because of two women who should later come into contact with the royal crown

Frederick’s grandson, also called Frederick but the fourth of the kind, was married twice. Problem was, when he married for the second time, he was already married.

Frederick IV by Benoit le Coffre.

 

Frederick was married to Louise of Mecklenburg the 2nd of December 1596 in Copenhagen. They had 5 children, but only two survived to adulthood, Christian VI and Charlotte Amalie who provided the foundations of the crown jewels I previously covered.

Now, Frederick, being an absolute monarch fully believed that his power had been vested in him by God. As a supreme monarch he stood above everybody in the kingdom, nay, the world. The law did not apply to him. No judge had the right to judge him and no man could arrest him for disobeying the law of the land. Only God could judge him for his actions and that would never happen while Frederick was alive, so why worry while you were alive?

This belief served him well twice as he twice let himself be wed to noblewomen during his marriage to Louise. The first woman he wed was Elisabeth Helene von Vieregg whom he later “divorced.” The other was Anna Sophie Reventlow, whom he met and abducted, hardly against her will, at a ball given by her parents.-

While he kept his “marriage” to Elisabeth secret, he proudly declared himself married to Anna Sophie and Louise and her children had to suffer in this knowledge. Louise died about a year after her husband’s third wedding in march 1721.

Frederick wasted no time in assuring his Anna Sophie’s position at the court and had her crowned at their official wedding a day later. While all of this may sound cruel, I don’t think Frederick and Anna Sophie were naturally cruel people. I think Frederick had been forced into a loveless marriage for the sake of the country and when Anna Sophie came along his absolute rule allowed him to take advantage of a couple laws to be with her.

This is where the crown comes in.

By old Danish law the king of the land was not allowed to marry a noblewoman, so while a second marriage was fully permittable and encouraged, the trouble was that Anna Sophie belonged to an old Danish family that, sadly, was not princely. She could not marry a king when she had been borne of a countess. Frederick II, a distant ancestor, nearly abdicated his throne over not being able to marry his noblewoman, the woman he loved. The problem lay in an old fear that the family of the queen would gain too much influence over king’s policies.

Anna Sophie Reventlow

It was almost a bigger offense to the country that Frederick should crown his wife than it was that he married her in the first place. His son, later Christian VI, took massive offense at his father’s actions. When Frederick IV died, Christian VI promptly had Anna Sophie thrown out of the castle and banished her to her family’s seat where she lived out the rest of her days far away from the six little graves containing the remains of all her children with Frederick IV. She is said to have grown massively religious, believing that the death of her babies, was God’s punishment.

Sophie Magdalene, wife of Christian VI, by Lorentz Pasch the Younger

Sophie Magdalene had been married to Christian VI while he was still a crown prince and her resentment of Anna Sophie grew as she witnessed the hurt her husband bore over his father’s treatment of Anna Sophie.

When the old king died and it was time for Christian and Sophie Magdalene to be crowned, she plainly refused to touch the crown that had been sullied by the touch of a mere noblewoman. A similar but undocumented story surrounds the crown some years earlier when it was created for Frederick III’s wife. It is said that Crown Princess (at the time) Sophie Amalie’s rival, her husband’s half-sister, Leonora Christina, had visited the goldsmith where the crown was being created. She had asked to see the crown and dropped it. Of course, the queen’s circle insisted that she wilfully threw it across the floor to spite Sophie Amalie.

She had the old crown melted down and re-shaped. No-one knows what it looks like since no queen was ever painted wearing it. The new crown is the one you see above. It was finished in 1731 and was used for a 110 years until the end of absolute rule.

The king's and queen's crown, side by side. They are on display at Rosenborg Castle in Copenhagen.

The Crown Regalia: The King’s Crowns

Christian IV's crown. 1595-96.

For this series, I am going to look at the various Danish crown regalia. This first post will look at the king’s crowns (of which there are two). Then I’ll take a look at the queen’s crown, the sceptre and apple and other articles that once were used in coronations here.

There are two male crowns in the Danish collection. The first one, above, is from 1595 or 96 and was created to be worn by Christian IV at his coronation. It’s spiky and mostly made up of gold filigree, and reminds me of Scandinavian bridal crowns. It doesn’t look like the typical royal crown, and this is because it hearkens back to the late beginning of the Northern Renaissance still heavily influenced by Medieval style and outlook.

The Coronation of Christian IV in 1596 by Otto Bache. 1887.

This is an imagining of what Christian’s coronation process might have looked like. It’s from the late 19th century and there are a couple mistakes in it. Note especially the child in the foreground grabbing for coins wearing a decidedly non-Renaissance hat.

It is important to remark that this crown is from a time before supreme rule. Christian IV fathered Frederick III who looked to France, saw that supreme rule was good for the monarch, and decided to implement it to a country where the nobility traditionally had a high stake in who became the next king.

Prior to 1660-61 Danish kings were “chosen” by a body of noblemen. This came down to the firstborn son to be presented on a tour around the country and the noblement voting to “choose” him for their next king. Things really only got interestin when it came to this son’s ascendency to the throne. Then the noblemen would sit him down, write out a document of things he had to fulfill to keep in their good graces and giving them the power to force him to abdicate should he not. If he refused to sign, which I think hardly ever happened, it was on to the next son. The king ruled on the basis of this document which Frederick III felt was not in keeping with a modern world and a modern monarchy.

The crown of Christian V. In the background the queen's crown.

 

Now this crown is the crown of a supreme monarch and the sort of thing you think of when you think “crown.” The crown was ordered in secret by Christian V’s father, Frederick III, who didn’t feel that his father’s crown was an appropriate symbol for a supreme monarch. It was intended for his son, not himself, and was used for the first time at his coronation.

The crown was made 1670-71 by royal goldsmith, Paul Kurtz, in Copenhagen. It was made closed to distinguish it from Christian IV’s crown, the symbol of an elected king and to resemble Louis XIV of France’s crown. Two large sapphires sit in the circlet of the crown. The large blue one seen in the picture is supposed to sit over the forehead of the wearer.

Christian V by Abraham Wuchters.

Frederick III by Wolfgang Holmbach. 1880.

 

Next part in the series on the crown regalia is the queen’s crown and why there is only one.

 

The Crown Jewels: The Diamonds

The full set,

I could be wrong, but these look like diamonds, right?

The reason for my confusion is that this piece is named “the rosestone set” by DDKKS (The Danish Kings Chronological Collection in English) but as far as I can tell they’re simply diamonds cut into a shape resembling roses.

The jewels that would later be made into this set originally belonged to Christian VI’s younger sister Charlotte Amalie, but weren’t made into this piece until 1840 by the request of Caroline Amalie, queen of Christian VIII.

Princess Charlotte Amalie decorated with the l'Union Parfaite. 1759.

There is another important set of jewellery which also belonged to Charlotte Amalie, namely the large “gown pieces.” They aren’t a part of the official crown jewels, but I have seen Queen Margrethe wear them at several galas, so I’m including them.

There are fourteen pieces.

The Crown Jewels: The Emeralds

The Danish crown jewels consist of four sets of jewels. Diadem, necklace, earrings. I’ll post them over the next couple of days, beginning today with the emerald set.

The history of the crown jewels begins with Queen Sophie Magdalene, wife of Christian VI. It was her decision that these jewels should always belong to the Danish Queen, and be inherited by no one person alone.

A close up of the tiara

“There are, in this royal house, so few jewels and even fewer crown jewels.”

As fashion changed, so did the queens who wore them change these jewels and their current shape was determined by Caroline Amalie, wife of Christian VIII. The pieces can be taken apart and combined in several different ways.

Traditionally, the jewels have never left Denmark, and the Queen leaves them at home when she goes on state visits abroad. Officially, they belong to the state and are made available to the queen at galas etc.

The Danish crown jewels are the only in the world that are made available for public viewing, usually at Rosenborg Castle, when the queen is not making use of them.

The full emerald set.

Sophie Magdalene of Brandeburg Kulmbach

Sophie Magdalene is also said to have refused to wear the queen’s crown as her husband’s father had crowned his noble mistress, Anna Sophie Reventlow, with it. She did not wish that a crown that had been “sullied” by a noblewoman should touch her royal head and had it melted down and reshaped. More on the crown regalia will follow later.

Sophie Magdalene

Sophie Magdalene and her husband, Christian VI, were devout pietists and banned music, dancing, the theatre and made it punishable to not attend church on sundays. When their son came to the throne, he promptly overturned all of these laws.

Hafnia

Hafnia

 

Hafnia is the Latin name of Copenhagen, my home town. Today it’s a city of 1,6 million people. Back when the above picture was made, it was fewer than 10.000.

 

This map shows what the city looked like in 1674 when the city walls still existed.

 

I’ve been spending my Christmas holiday with my family here in the Copenhagen suburbs and a lovely time it’s been, but now I’m ready to leave for the other old and tiny city that has a hold on my heart, Auld Reekie as Edinburgh is affectionally known.

It’s been real, Copenhagen!

The Lady in the Tower

 

Leonora Christina as imagined by an unknown 19th century artist.

Leonora Christina was born on the 8th of July 1621, the daughter of King Christian IV and his noble wife, Kirstine Munk. Kirstine was not the King’s queen, and many doubted that she even was married to him. Kirstine was called The Left Hand’s Wife, the implication being that a queen was married to the right hand. It did not matter that Christian’s wife, Queen Anna Catherine of Brandenburg had died: a prince could not crown a noblewoman queen and Kirstine was the daughter of a countess and a deceased wife. Christian IV is known in Denmark as an entrepeneurial king, and most people realise that it was not only because he built buildings all over Copenhagen, but also because he was quick to make any woman he wanted his. His illegitimate sons born during his marriage were given the surname Goldenlion.

But when Anna Catherine died, leaving him two sons, it did not take long for Christian to notice the beautiful Kirstine, and whether his courtiers believed the validity thereof, he orchestrated a marriage – of sorts. Together they had twelve children, two of which were stillborn. Eight were girls, and two boys. Leonora Christine Christiansdaughter was the third of their children, and together with her siblings she was sent to her grandmother, Kirstine’s mother Ellen Marsvin (literally meaning guinea pig), to be raised until her 6th year. After that she and her sisters were sent to Karen Sehested, one of Kirsten Munk’s ladies, and were raised at Frederiksborg.

1643

 

I became interested in her story around the age of 12, and at that time read a delightful book by Maria Helleberg, a renowned writer of historical fiction here in Denmark. It detailed Leonora Christine’s story from her childhood years until her marriage. The expression the book would always leave me with was that of a girl growing up amongst a plentitude of sisters, fighting for the attention of her elders and the respect of her sisters. It also detailed the sisters’ reactions to their engagements. The three eldest, Anna Catherine, Sophie Elisabeth and Leonora Christine were all engaged at more or less the same time, Leonora Christine being 9 years at the time.

In the immediate years before her wedding, Leonora Christina was moved to the Danish court and proceeded to win the affections for her father. If there is one thing that most people agree on about Christian IV it is that he was a man who loved his children, of whom he had 23, unconditionally, but Leonora Christinia was to win a special place in her father’s heart. Leonora even managed to maneouvre herself into the position of the hostess at the court, since there was trouble between her mother and father, largely due to entirely true accusations of unfaithfulness on Kirsten’s part.

Perhaps Leonora needed the victory of becoming her father’s hostess, for even though her father was fond of her husband-to-be, Corfitz Ulfeldt, her sisters were wont to make fun of him because of a stiff leg. Even though Corfitz was only in his twenties, during their engagement, he already had to use a cane, which Leonora’s sisters would point out to her time and again. After his death Corfitz’ was to become known as Denmark’s biggest traitor.

The painting says "hoffmeister" which means something like Lord Chancellor

 

Leonora Christina and Corfitz Ulfeldt were married on the 9th of October 1636, Leonora being 15 years old, Corfitz 30. Although the marriage saw its share of adultery, on the part of both spouses, it was reported as a happy one with both partners seeking to overcome their differences and work together.

Leonora gave birth to their first child on the 5th of December the next year, a boy they named Christian who would later become a Catholic priest in Rome, although he was born to Protestant parents. Corfitz had been appointed Lord Chancellor (which is really the best translation I can come up with) that same year and he had managed to obtain such power that he could manage to reign for several months after King Christian’s death in 1648.

Christian IV by Pieter Isaacsz ca. 1611-1616

 

Of course, history is full of examples of why one should seek to not cross kings, perhaps especially one like Frederik III, Leonora’s half-brother, who would later go on to sever the ties that had traditionally held the Danish king accountable to his noblemen and declare himself sovereign king like in the French fashion.

Corfitz’, who had grown accustomed to heavy responsibilities, like diplomatic duties that had taken him to Russia, England and so on, was not pleased by his brother-in-law taking into hand the power that was divinely appointed him (as one believed then), and sought to tighten Frederick’s ties during the Royal Election. A Royal Election was the process in which the Danish noblemen worked out a contract which a Danish “Chosen King” (meaning he had been elected by these same noblemen in his childhood to suceed his father) had to sign in order for his noblemen to swear him their allegiance. Frederick reciprocrated by instigating an investigation into Ulfeldt’s financial affairs, and in 1651 the king presented Ulfeldt and his wife with a document accusing Ulfeldt, in his position as Lord Chancellor of having embezzelled the Øresund’s tax, the most profitable of all the king’s incomes. Faced with possibly a death sentence Corfitz Ulfeldt thought it best to take his wife, children and belongings and flee the country.

Meanwhile, Leonora Christina had found herself on worse and worse terms with Frederick III’s queen, Sophie Amalie of Braunschweig-Lüneburg, who had found herself quite perplexed, upon her arrival at the Danish court, to find the dead king’s illegitimate daughter inhabitating the position of hostess and head of the court. Leonora Christina, used to being flattered by the Danish court, was not pleased to give up her position and very reluctantly did so.

Sophie Amalie of Braunschweig-Lüneburg

When things turned for the worse for both spouses, Corfitz Ulfeldt and Leonora Christina fled to Sweden, where Ulfeldt promptly entered the service of the Swedish king Karl X Gustav. As a sidenote I might add that Denmark and Sweden have been mortal enemies, but also brother-countries (it’s a strange sort of relationship), since, oh, always. Ulfeldt spent years and years trying to excite anger in the Swedish consciousness. Finally, in 1657, his labours bore fruit and Karl X Gustav marched towards Denmark with Ulfeldt personally joining the army, and happily lent the Swedish army huge sums, that is believed to have stolen from the Danish coffers. Karl X Gustav managed to conquer back the at the time northern Danish, and now southern Swedish Skåne (about which there are still ownership issues to this day), a huge loss to the Danish king and Karl X Gustav made Ulfeldt governor of the area. Soon enough, however, Ulfeldt and Karl X Gustav began bickering and later fighting, resulting in Ulfeldt being taken prisoner, by the Swedish, and placed in house arrest. He managed to escape, with his wife, to Denmark, where they were promptly seized and moved to Bornholm, the easternmost part of Denmark, a tiny, and at the time, isolated place.

Hammershus, were the couple were imprisoned

The castle in which they were moved was a medieval castle. Above is the picture of the ruins I have visited twice now. Leonora Christina and her husband were placed in different rooms, and were forbidden to speak with one another but since they both knew Latin, French and Italian, which their guards did not, they would communicate by shouting out of windows facing one another over a courtyard, one speaking e.g. Italian and the other Latin, and the guards would be none the wiser of whether they were planning an escape or merely exchanging pleasantries.

Amanzingly, they were later released from their prison, on the condition that they signed a contract with the king stating that they transferred all their posessions to the king. Leonora Christina stayed at home in Denmark, with the children they had not seen for many years, but Ulfeldt decided to travel abroad, more precisely to the home of Frederik Wilhelm, Elector of Brandenburg. Here Ulfeldt revealed, to the horrified elector that he had plans to assasinate the Danish king and that he offered Frederik Wilhelm the Danish crown should he suceed.

He did not, of course, and was in fact revealed in his plans by Frederik Wilhelm. This time there was no pardon from the Danish king and Ulfeldt was sentenced to death, in absentia. Ulfeldt fled further away, having been declared the greatest traitor of the country hence. His wife was seized, and their home in inner Copenhagen torn to the ground. In its place the king erected a pillar to the shame of Corfitz Ulfeldt – to the eternal shame and taunting, as it says on the pillar which still stands today.

It has been moved to the National Museum, however.

A memorial plaque on Gråbrødre Torv today

 

So, what happened to Leonora Christina that I would entitle this post The Lady in the Tower?

She was, as I mentioned, seized and although she begged for her freedom, being an older lady at this point, she was sentenced to prison and imprisoned she was. In Blåtårn (Blue Tower, a tower adjacent to the Castle of Copenhagen, where her half-brother and his wife lived. She was to stay there for 22 years, surviving Sophie Amalie, who many now believe to have been the one keeping her imprisoned despite Leonora Christina repeatedly refusing that she knew nothing of her husband’s traitorous plans.

A later imagining of the interior in Leonora's cell

During her imprisonment Leonora spun and wove cloth, to make clothes from, and she wrote her autobiography, entitled Jammers Minde (Wretchedness’ Memory) which was to be discovered in 1867 causing a veritable scandal.

It was one of her daughter’s who went to the king after the death of Sophie Amalie in 1685, and pleaded for her mother to be released. At this time Leonora had been held in Blue Tower for 22 years. Her freedom was granted her and she was moved to live at a monastery for the remaining, and old, nuns of the St. Birgitte-order. She died and was buried at the monastery now known as Maribo Church, but some time later her body was removed, presumably by sons, and re-buried at the undisclosed location where her husband was already buried.

From the day Leonora Christina was married she refused to adopt the name Ulfeldt, and insisted upon being called Mistress Leonora Christina, daughter of the King of Denmark.

 

At a meeting with, I assume, Queen Sophie Amalie

 

 

Kirstine Munk