Remember, remember, the Fifth of November…

Elizabeth Stuart by Gerrit van Honthorst. National Portrait Gallery, London.

I was doing some reading about the Gunpowder, Treason and Plot thingie when I came across this lady. I read that she was Elizabeth Stuart, daughter of James VI of Scotland and I of England and our very own Anne of Denmark and naturally my interest was spiked.

Elizabeth was born on the 19th of August 1596, the second child of James and Anne at Falkland Palace in Fife, Scotland and was six years old when her father took the English throne.

Elizabeth in 1606, by Robert Peake the Elder. Metropolitan Museum of Art

She comes into the Gunpowder, Treason and Plot by being Guy Fawkes’ intended Catholic monarch. It was his plan to kidnap her in 1605, when she was nine, and, after assassinating her father to put her on the throne. Happily, Guy Fawkes was apprehended before he could murder her father and Elizabeth remained a princess, not to follow in her aunt’s footsteps as a reigning queen of England.
Elizabeth was married on Valentine’s Day 1613 to Frederick V, the Elector of the Palatinate in Germany. They were married at the palace of Whitehall and John Donne, the famous 17th century poet, wrote a poem to celebrate the event “Epithalamion, or Marriage Song on the Lady Elizabeth, and Count Palatine being married on St. Valentines Day.”

Frederick led the coalition of Protestant princes at Holy Roman Emperor’s court and marrying Elizabeth would have tightened his ties to his fellow protestants at the court. Despite the business-like affair of their marriage, the two were believed to be genuinely in love with each other and Frederick even created an English wing in his palace at Heidelberg to make his wife comfortable.

Elizabeth is also sometimes called The Winter Queen, the cause being her husband’s short reign as king of Bohemia. Frederick was offered the Bohemian crown in 1619 and both him and Elizabeth were crowned in November 1619. However, Ferdinand II, the Holy Roman Emperor, had a birthright to the throne and did not let them reign long. He forced the couple into exile by 1920, where Elizabeth came to be known as the Winter Queen.

In 1648 her son, Charles I, won back the Electorate of the Palatinate and after the Restoration of the English and Scottish Monarchs, it was also possible for Elizabeth to travel to England to visit her nephew, Charles II.

It is also through Elizabeth’s line the Hanoverian royal house of Britain, which ended in 1901 with Queen Victoria, is descended. Her daughter, Sophia of Hanover, had become the nearest Protestant to the English and Irish crown and under the Act of Settlement (1701) the royal crown was bestowed on her and her issue.

And this particular blog owner, will never cease to be amazed at how interconnected the royal houses of Europe really are. I hope all of my readers in England are having a great Bonfire Night!

Elizabeth as a widow, by Gerard van Honthorst. National Gallery of London.

 

 

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Anne of Denmark

Anne of Denmark

Today, 436 years ago, Anne was born at Skanderborg Castle. She was the second child, and second girl, of Frederik the Second and his queen, Sophie of Mecklenburg-Schwerin. After her christening she was sent to be raised by her maternal grandparents in Wismar, capital of what is now Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. She had a quiet childhood there and it wasn’t until three years later she returned to Denmark, to greet the birth of her brother, Christian who later became Christian the Fourth of Denmark (the most famous of all the Danish kings), and once he had been christened in Copenhagen, away to Germany they went. She stayed there with her older sister, Elisabeth and Christian, for around a year. It was their father, Frederik, who wrote for the Duke and Duchess of Mecklenburg, in a letter brimming with paternal love. He wanted his children back. When Christian was old enough he was sent to school, while Elisabeth and Anne stayed with their mother and father.

Anne of Denmark

All Frederik and Sophie’s children were raised in the Lutheran faith that their grandfather had brough to Denmark. They were given educations and travelled the Danish kingdom, which at this time included Norway, certain parts of Northern Germany and Southern Sweden, with their mother and father.

In 1588 Frederik died of a lung infection. The plans for a princess of Denmark to marry the king of Scotland, James the First, were already underway. At first Elisabeth had been the chosen candidate but while Frederik was still alive he betrothed her to the Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg. As he did so he promised to the Scottish delegation “for the second daughter, Anne, if the king did like her, he should have her”. Anne was fourteen when she travelled to Norway, to be met by her husband.

Possibly Anne of Denmark, by Paul Somer

After the final agreement was signed in July, Anne was married by proxy at Kronborg, the most modern castle in Denmark, to James. Ten days later she set out for Scotland with her was her recently widowed mother and older sister. Her eleven-year old brother, who now was king, was at school back home. The fleet was beset by trouble and the ship carrying the princess and her family was forced to land in Norway, for fear of the sea. It was a lord Dingwall who brought news of the misfortune to king James in Scotland, and James immediately ordered public prayers and national fasting.

In October he was again informed that the Danes were staying in Norway for the winter, afraid of the autumn seas. James must have thought “weather be damned” because he himself, along with three-hundred men, set out for Norway. Upon arrival he had to travel some distance over land to meet his bride but upon reaching her dwelling-place presented himself to her “in boots and all” and kissed her, in the Scottish fashion. It must have been a great shock to her, such showings of affection were, at the Danish court, passed in private and only after the wedding. Although, other sources do claim that she was wildly in love with him, having herself embroidered shirts for him back home, so maybe the kiss wasn’t quite so unwelcome, though it shocked her mother and sister, and the rest of the Danish delegation.

They were formally married the 23rd of November, at the Old Bishop’s Palace in Oslo. “With all the splendour possible at the time and place” probably means that the wedding party was slightly subdued. It is unclear whether it was before or after the wedding ceremony, but as a precaution against future storms James ordered the burning of up to ten witches that he believed had caused the storms that made it impossible for Anne to meet her husband in Norway.

The newlyweds celebrated their wedding in Oslo for a full month, before travelling to Denmark on the 22nd of December with only fifty of James’ men. There they met the young king and his council, celebrated Christmas with the family at Kronborg and in March travelled to Copenhagen to attend the wedding of Anne’s older sister, Elisabeth to Julius of Braunswick-Lüneburg. Two days later they finally made for Leith, Scotland. Five days after their arrival Anne made her official entry into Edinburgh, riding in a silver coach with her husband on horseback besides her.

On the 17th of May she was crowned queen of Scotland. The ceremony lasted seven hours and during the anointing in holy oil, Anne’s dress was opened so that oil could be poured upon her breast and arm. It was chancellor Maitland who crowned Anne, and her oath indluded a pledge to defend the true faith against “papistical superstitions and whatsoever ceremonies and rites contrary to the word of God.”

Anne's coat of arms, combining those of her husband with her father's.

Anne, 1617.

by Paul van Somer