A (short) resource on Caroline Mathilde; or Danish history, English books.

A while ago reader Allison posted a comment asking me if I could dig up some English books relating to Caroline Mathilde, as she’d recently seen the movie A Royal Affair. The director of the movie mentions that 19 or so books relate to the subject, and that’s certainly true… if you speak Danish. I know this also, because I’ve read the vast majority. My favourite book about Caroline Mathilde will always be “Princess of the Blood” by Bodil Steensen-Leth. It serves as a vague sort of inspiration for the film and I wish it had been translated into English because every historically inclined reader deserves to read this book

Sadly, the supply of English-language books about Caroline Mathilde (who was an English princess but seems mostly an aside in English history), Christian VII or Johann Friederich Struensee is very lacking.

In my searches I’ve only been able to find two, and poor Allison was already aware the one existed and probably would have little trouble finding the other. So much for asking your friendly neighbourhood history blogger for help! If only you’d asked me for books in Danish, because there’d be LOADS to highlight.

Here are a few English titles about poor Caroline Mathilde and I hope Allison finds that this post has helped her in some way.

THE VISIT OF THE ROYAL PHYSICIAN

The Visit of the Royal Physician by Per Olov Enquist.

The Visit of the Royal Physician by Per Olov Enquist.

This one was translated from Danish to English in 2003. I read it back when I was 15 and devouring everything related to Caroline Mathilde. Amazon gives it 4,4 stars and most of the reviews are glowing.

from Amazon

“It is the 1760s, the height of the Enlightenment. The young King of Denmark, Christian VII, is a half-wit. His queen, the English princess Caroline Mathilde, has fallen in love with his most trusted advisor, the court physician Struensee. Guldberg, a cold-blooded religious fanatic, is determined to annihilate the Enlightenment ideas Struensee is introducing to Denmark – whoever prevails in their bitter ideological battle will control not only the king but the nation state.

 Adultery, insanity, back-stabbing and blue blood… Enquist brilliantly recasts a dramatic era of Danish history, weaving a wide range of historical characters – Voltaire and Diderot, Catherine the Great and George III – into a tale of ruthless political ambition and personal betrayal.”

A ROYAL AFFAIR: George III and His Troublesome Siblings

A Royal Affair: George III and his troublesome siblings by Stella Tillyard

A Royal Affair: George III and his troublesome siblings by Stella Tillyard

I’ve not personally read this but I think it looks VERY exciting. It’s about all of George III’s siblings, but is centered around Caroline Mathilde, and as I know very little about the rest of her English family, my interest is definitely piqued.

from Amazon

The young George III was a poignant figure, humdrum on the surface yet turbulent beneath: hiding his own passions, he tried hard to be a father to his siblings and his nation. This intimate, fast-moving book tells their intertwined stories. His sisters were doomed to marry foreign princes and leave home forever; his brothers had no role and too much time on their hands – a recipe for disaster.

 At the heart of Tillyard’s story is Caroline Mathilde, who married the mad Christian of Denmark in her teens, but fell in love with the royal doctor Struensee: a terrible fate awaited them, despite George’s agonized negotiations. At the same time he faced his tumultuous American colonies. And at every step a feverish press pounced on the gossip, fostering a new national passion – a heated mix of celebrity and sex.

THE LOST QUEEN

The Lost Queen by Nora Lofts

The Lost Queen by Nora Lofts

You have to forgive me for including this ridiculously inaccurate cover because a) how could I not? and b) I literally can’t stop laughing at how trashy it is.

I have no idea what the book is like but based on this cover, I feel like I MUST READ IT.

from Amazon

‘Princesses are born to be exiled. What is the alternative? Spinsterhood? ‘Thus the future of Caroline Matilda, youngest sister of George III, was settled – exile to a foreign country, and marriage to a nearly insane Crown Prince of Denmark. Entreatingly prompted by a sense of foreboding, she begged that one of her sisters be sent in her place. But Caroline was the healthiest, the strongest of the English princesses, and as well as being exiled, princesses were meant to brood mares…Here is the life of Caroline Matilda set against the stark contrasts of 18th century Denmark; the cruelty, poverty and oppression of life under an absolute monarch sinking into madness; and the hatreds and court intrigues that swirled around the young English girl who was Queen of Denmark.

But let’s be real, we all decided to read it the moment we laid eyes on THAT COVER.

I’m afraid that’s all I could find for Allison. I do hope you got something out of it, and if anybody is interested in hearing about the multitude of Danish fiction about Caroline Mathilde, don’t hesitate to ask!

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Jens Juel

Self Portrait at the Easel, 1766

I’ve featured a few of Jens Juel’s (pronounced with soft js, “Yens Yuel” for reference) paintings on this here blog before. Juel is generally thought of as one of the most famous artists from Denmark of all time. His specialty was portraits.

Juel received his education from the Royal Danish Academy of Art at 20 years old. When he had finished his education he, like many other, if not all, Danish artists at the time went to Rome for eight years to study the art in the Eternal City. A veritable community of Danish artists was formed here. Returning to Denmark these artists brought with them new styles and methods to the delight of polite society.

He also stayed in Paris and Genève before returning home to Denmark in 1780 and gradually became the go-to painter for high society. Royalty and nobility, and everybody else who could call themselves members of high society sat for him. He was also chosen for several prestigious positions at the Academy of Art.

The Artist and his Wife, Rosine (née Dørschell). 1791.

Rosine and Jens had several children. Two of their daughters went on to marry artist C.W. Eckersberg, presumably not at the same time.

Princess Louise Augusta. 1780. This is one of the first portraits of the period that feature a woman in style of the French revolutionaries. When the portrait was first presented to the court, the outline of Louise Augusta's legs could be seen and Juel was promptly told to paint them over.

Frederick, who later became Frederick VI of Denmark, brother of Louise Augusta.

Louise Augusta. 1784.

I think these two portraits must have been ordered together. They were sent to the English court (their mother, Caroline Mathilde, being an English princess) and when I last visited Holyrood Castle they were hanging there. I asked a curator about it and since some other paintings had been taken down and sent to London for an exhibition these two were sent to Edinburgh to be hung.

Sophie Marie of Hessel-Kassel, Queen of Denmark. She was married to Frederick VI. 1790. Apparently her title before she was married was "Her Serene Highness" which is pretty cool.

Madame de Pragins-. 1779

Noblewoman With her Son. 1799-1800.

Caroline Mathilde, mother of Frederick and Louise Augusta.

Niels Ryberg with his son Johan Christian and daugjhter-in-law Engelke, née Falbe. 1796-97.

Christian VII of Denmark. Father of Frederick VI and Louise Augusta. 1789.

Augusta Louise of Stolberg-Stolberg, friend of Goethe and wife of a Danish minister.. 1780.

Bolette Marie Lindencrone. 1786.

Chamberlain Johan Frederik Lindencrone, husband of Bolette Marie. 1787.

Eleonora Hennings, 1780s, wife of a Danish minister.

I love Juel’s style.

I love the fashion from the period during which he was active, and I love studying the features of family members he painted.

 

The Crown Jewels: The Pearls and Rubies

Like the diamond piece, the pearls in this piece originally belonged to Princess Charlotte Amalie. In 1840 Christian VIII’s queen Caroline Amalie ordered the piece re-modelled and the rubies were added. This is the last of the crown jewel pieces still in use by the Danish queen.

Caroline Amalie of Schleswig-Holstein-Sønderborg-Augustenborg. 1830 by Aumont.

Caroline Amalie was married to Christian VIII, son of Juliane Marie’s son Prince Frederick. Since Frederick VI had no sons, Christian VIII was crowned upon his death.

In a twist of fate Caroline Amalie’s uncle was also Frederick VI. The mother of Caroline Amalie is Princess Louise Augusta, the daughter of Queen Caroline Mathilde. Louise Augusta’s story is an interesting one that I will post about at a later date.

Although the old king had accepted Louise Augusta as his legitimate child, rumours persist that Louise Augusta was actually fathered by Johann Struensee who once upon a time ruled in the king’s stead. Since these rumours were never confirmed, there was no hindrance for Caroline Amalie to become queen consort.

Caroline Amalie and Christian VIII were the last Danish monarchs to be crowned, and since their reign the Danish crowns (which I will post about later) have been safely packed away beneath Rosenborg Castle. Their sucessor, Frederik VII was the king who gave the Danes a democratic law and ended 400 years of supreme royal rule. In a way, this couple were the beginning of the end for the old monarchy. Soon, there would be no more supreme rule and soon the role of the monarch would constitutional one.

Caroline Amalie is also the queen that gave these four pieces their current shape, but the notion that parts of these pieces are from the 17th century is a sweet one.

It could be said that her nose is more Struensee than Christian VII but who can really say?

The Scandal of the Century

On the 8th of December 1766, the brother of George III, Caroline Mathilde, daughter of Frederick, Prince of Wales and Augusta of Saxe-Gotha, married her Danish cousin in The Church of Our Lady (Vor Frue Kirke). She was fiften, her husband sixteen and a king of all of six months. Caroline Mathilde had grown up apart from her brother’s court, due to her mother’s widowhood and was by all accounts a sheltered, young woman who had been transplanted in a strange evironment under the expectation that she would easily understand how to maneouvre herself. Christian VII, her husband, had grown up in the midst of a court in turmoil, with his father’s wife more or less openly disliking him. He was subject to physical punishment throughout all of his childhood – which promptly ended when he was 16 and his father died. The young man suffered from nervous breakdowns, bouts of scizophrenia and mania. He was diagnosed with dementia praecox and was fully expected to recover from it as he grew older.

Of course, this is no fairy-tale story.

Christian VII by Jens Juel, 1789

After the wedding Caroline found herself alone at a strange court, amongst courtiers who divided themselves into cliques. The young and eager men encouraged the king in his bouts of mania, and they would often wreak havoc upon the castles themselves and seek out prostitutes in the lower city, often those of sadomasochistic inclination. It is well-known that Christian VII sought the company of a prostitute aptly named Boots-Catherine in 1767 and he also famously declared that he could not love Caroline because “it was not fashionable to love one’s wife.” As Caroline became pregnant with their first child he sunk even deeper into debauchery, paranoia and hallucinations the result of which being that he would often harm himself, or seek our Boots-Catherine to physically demean him.

Meanwhile, Caroline had only the head of her household, Countess Louise von Plessen, to turn to as her husband’s stepmother the Dowager Queen Juliane Marie, discouraged the other ladies of the court to be openly friendly with the lonely girl. I’m not trying to make Juliane Marie sound like a monster, since she surely had many trials in her own life what with giving birth to a physically and mentally disabled son and trying to overcome the Danish people and her husband’s love for his firste wife Louise of England.

Louise von Plessen

Juliane Marie holding up a portrait of her son whom she hoped might become king as her stepson's mental health became worse and worse.

It is clear that with the mental disabilities apparent in both sides of the Danish-English family that yet another marriage between cousins was not a good idea, but that was of course never the concern for any royal family at the time.

In 1768, on the 28th of January, the now Queen gave birth to her first child, a son whom they named Frederik. It wasn’t long thereafter that Christian VII decided to go on a tour of Europe, leaving his wife at home alone with her infant child. He didn’t leave until after banishing Countess von Plessen from his court, and no amount of beggin on Caroline’s part could persuade him to take her back. I believe he may have accused her of having a negative influence on his wife. Christian left a court inhabitated by women and perhaps gave his wife a welcome break from his loud and boisterous friends who enjoyed rubbing Caroline’s nose in her husband’s affair with a prostitute. She and the Dowager Queen(s), as Christian’s grandmother, Sophie Magdalene, was still alive. They retired to Frederiksborg Castle for the summer, and came back to Copenhagen in the autumn where Caroline Mathilde attracted a scandal by taking walks in Copenhagen, where noblewomen would only ride carriages.

Queen Sophie Magdalene, 1700-1770

Christian came back from his travels on the 12th of January 1769, bringing with him a new doctor, Johann Friederich Struensee, whom he had found in Altona and decided to employ as his physician. At the time the smallpox was the single greatest threat towards children, high as well as low, and Caroline Mathilde, who were are afraid the disease would reach the castle asked the newly arrived doctor if he would inoculate her son. She did so knowing that the risks of doing so might be as great as her son contracting the disease itself. Thankfully, Frederik survived and Caroline developed a confidence with the doctor, with whom she began exchanging ideas for the raising of her son. The king also came to greatly confide in his doctor, as he by Struensee’s methods for the first time in years was able to calm his mind and lessen the need for self-mutilation.

Caroline Mathilde’s confidence in Struensee grew even deeper when he came to realise how despicably her husband treated her, and when he positively affected Christian to treat his wife with more respect. The result was a more amicable relationship between the young couple and a strenghtening of Caroline’s position at the court. As a show of gratitude Caroline appointed Struensee her secretary and Christian him his official reader.

Johann Friederich Struensee by Jens Juel

The relationship between Struensee and Caroline quickly turned romantic as one might imagine when a neglected young girl, who’s never known romantic love, meets a “tall, dark stranger”. Well, you get what I mean. Struensee became her closest friend, a man with whom she could discuss her child intellectually, a man who understood how to handle a girl like her. They engaged in a sexual relationship that quickly became an official secret in the court. Even the king knew and condoned the relationship. This time is known as the Time of Struensee, his 16-month reign, where he also managed to exile the king’s hitherto closest friend and confidante, and take up that position himself. He became a minister in no time, and even quicker did he manage to send away the former Prime Minister, and dissolve the former Council. He formed a new one with himself as the King’s only minister. Even more shocking to the general public of Copenhagen was that he encouraged the Queen to ride out – dressed in a man’s clothing

In June 1771 the Queen moved to Hørsholm castle, north of Copenhagen, and there Caroline spent an idyllic summer with her lover and her court. It is a large possibility that she also moved away from the King and the rest of the court because the 7th of July Caroline Mathilde gave birth to a girl. Her daughter was christened Louise Augusta, after Caroline and Christian’s respective mothers, and although the King acknowledged the child as his Louise Augusta was often called “la Petite Struensee” around the court. Most modern historians seem to agree that Louise Augusta was, in fact, Struensee’s child.

Louise Augusta

And although we might agree that Struensee was little short of a usurper and a dictator, he introduced freedom of speech and disbanded an old law forcing commoners to stay where they were born lest they left and took with them their labour force. He also made sure the Crown Prince was given a modern upbringing after the principles of Rousseau. I’ve not studied said principles in length but I am left with the impression that his upbringing was a little too heavy-handed, or to put it another way it nearly killed the small boy and his early childhood was also seen to be the reason for his somewhat peculiar adult behaviour.

Frederik VI by Jens Juel

Struensee’s reign could never last, of course. In the heat of the moment both he and Caroline must have forgotten that there was a formidable force in their opposition. Juliane Marie, who most certainly believed in the divine right of kings, was hardly pleased at seeing a commoner take her husband’s throne, and Caroline Mathilde must have been perceived as nothing short of a common whore debasing herself in such a way as to have an extramarital affair. (Please note that I personally do not advocate slut-shaming). Christian couldn’t have cared very much, so long as he was distracted from the governmental work that he had never cared much for.

Juliane Marie, along with ministers Struensee had unseated, struck after a masked ball in the night between the 17th and 18th of January 1772, and they arrested Struensee and his main accomplice Enevold Brandt who were then presented with a warrant on them, signed by the King. The men of Juliane’s party also had orders to apprehend the Queen. Of course, a Queen of the realm could never be arrested but she was taken into a carriage in the dead of night, with her infant daughter but without her son, whom she hadn’t been allowed to see. They drove her, for how many hours I daren’t imagine, to Helsingør (or Elsinore, as Shakespeare called it) and put her into custody at Kronborg, an old, drafty, renaissance castle. There she was kept for a matter of weeks, while it her “sentence” was discussed by the Danish and English courts.

Meanwhile in Copenhagen the trial for Struensee and Enevoldt had begun, and it came to light that paid by Juliane Marie, Caroline’s ladies had left flour on her doorstep to see whether a man would visit her at night. They had also found garters amongst Struensee’s possessions that the maids swore had originated in Caroline’s boxes. He admitted to having an affair with the Queen in a pleading tone, and his confession made Caroline confess also. A confession she later drew back, perhaps because she realised that she would never be allowed to return either to Copenhagen or England if she confessed.

Struensee’s pleading did not help him and he was sentenced to death. His sentence was carried out the morning of the 28th of April. Although the King had signed the death sentence he was said to be unaware of what was happening to his former friend. Juliane Marie, however, witnessed it from her windows. The crowd also witnessing the execution were said to be quiet after the executioner held up Struensee’s severed head.

The next day the ladies who were with the Queen, would discuss it in every gory detail in front of an obviously distraught Queen. In May her own fate was finally decided. Her brother would not take her back, as she was obviously not going to be able to marry anyone, and neither would the Danish court so she was instead deported to Celle, in northern Germany which was under British rule. There she was finally re-united with Louise von Plessen and a small, but loyal, court. In 1774 she began plotting to be re-instated as her son’s guardian and she would write her brother, King George III of Great Britain, and ask him of her support.

She never was to be re-united with either of her children. Caroline Mathilde, a Princess of the blood of England, and former Queen of Denmark, died suddenly on May 10th 1775. She had contracted scarlet fever. She was buried in the church of St. Marie in Celle, and hasn’t been moved to Roskilde Church, the final place of rest for all Danish Kings and Queens.

Although she was no longer Queen at her death, she would still call herself Caroline Mathilde of Denmark until the end.

Juliane Marie’s influence, and he governed Denmark informally until his father’s death in 1808.

Louise Augusta was married to Duke Frederik Christian of Augustenborg in Sønderbog, southern Denmark. Her sons went on to try and dethrone Christian the 8th, who would go on to marry their sister, Caroline Amalie. You know, just any normal big, happy family.

Caroline Mathilde